Our Beginnings in Germany, - Understanding How Things Were for our Ancestors, and Why They May Have Departed Germany
Through the centuries most of our ancestors lived I rural areas and came under the auspices of a Grund- or Gutsherr (landowner). Most cultivable lad was owned by them - less by small farmers, although it was possible for a Grundherr to lease lad to more or less independent farmers. Gutsherr also a manor lord, owned land and managed it through workers.
A Grunderr can be lord over a small area, does not have to be a nobleman and can also be a monastery. A manorial system was complex and embraced all aspects of life. A Gutsherr also a manor lord, owned land and managed it through workers. The farmers of the surrounding areas were his subordinates and their affairs were regulated by him or his administrator.
There were three forms of manorial systems:
2. Interest or annuity based.
3. Manorial or patrimonial based.
Villication - This system consisted of a manor and a couple of dependent farms. The manor lord owned acreage, meadows, gardens, woods, lakes, rivers, canals, vineyards and mills. The manor lord lived either at the manor house or had his administrator (Villikus) conduct the business.
This man was responsible for to collecting contributions from farmers, also called Grundholden. He had the power to hold court. Even if some farmers were independent, somehow they became part of the multifaceted enterprise of the manor.
The interest or annuity based system - This system very much functioned as villication did, only there did not exist the right to ownership. The manor lord leased the land and collected interest or annuities. This form of manorial system was prevalent in areas of clearing or colonization.
The manorial or patrimonial system - East of the Elbe River in Brandenburg, Mecklenburg, Pomerania, East / West Prussia, Silesia (Ober-/Niederlausitz) the Gutsherrschaft was prominent. A Gut consisted of a castle like manor house to which was attached a large farming area and smaller farming units (Vorwerk). A Gutsherr was interested in expansion by re-cultivating waste lands and annexing or buying farmlands.
In this wise an entire village could become part of the Gutsherrschafft and economic growth be ensured. The entire area was cultivated by farm hands, subordinate farmers and squatters (Gärtner, Häusler). The members of a Gut were part of a more or less crushing personal dependence.
Dependents had to observe Erbuntertänigkeit (subservience which was inheritable) Schollenpflicht (tied to the area) and Gesindedienstzwang (had to provide services by waiting in the wings). Gutsherrschaft was spreading because authoritative laws were transferred to the Gutsherr of noble descent. He exercised police powers and patrimonial jurisprudence.
With all these regulations, obligations, stipulations etc. there are numerous records re. land transactions, regulative and obligatory actions involving our ancestors who dwelled in rural Germany.